From history to the present
From history to the present
Nowadays, it is no longer possible to imagine a comfortable existence without sophisticated heating devices that heat our homes and workplaces in cool weather.
Air-conditioning became from history. Ancient Egyptian buildings used a wide variety of passive air-conditioning techniques. These became widespread from the Iberian Peninsula through North Africa, the Middle East, and Northern India. Similar techniques were developed in hot climates elsewhere
Primary “heating systems” date back to the Stone Age from history . Ancient people made fires in their homes, which warmed them in bad weather (and at the same time served as a “stove” for cooking)
With the development of human society from history, adaptations have also evolved to ensure its comfortable existence. So about a couple of centuries BC, the first heating stoves with chimneys appeared to remove combustion products.
The engineers of Ancient Rome made a great contribution to the “heating history” of humankind. There were analogs of a “warm” floor – a network of special channels running in the walls and under the floor, through which the combustion from the stove was passed.
In addition, the Romans invented central heating. They did not build stoves in each room, but made a stove in a separate, specialized room, from which a network of canals was launched.
It is interesting that it was in Ancient Rome that the fireplace (from the Latin Caminus – open hearth) acquired its modern look, which was installed in the center of the room and was surrounded by heat-accumulating materials as much as possible. The fireplace also had one more important function – ventilation, it was carried out due to the draft in the chimney from history.
A kind of revolution was made by the invention of the fire-air heating system. Its meaning was that cold air was supplied through the air intake shaft to the stove, heated up, touching its hot surface, and through the vertical and horizontal air distribution channels passed into the heated rooms. From there, the air that had given off the heat was returned to the atmosphere through the exhaust ducts. In this system, air circulation was natural due to the density difference between hot and cold. This system, in addition to heating the room, also ventilated it.
In the 15th-18th centuries, clay and brick ovens were common.
Along with fire-air heating, which was used in the above-mentioned furnaces, water heating began to develop in the 18th century. In 1777, the natural circulation water heating system was invented.
Engineering thought did not stand still; in the 19th century, the widespread use of water and steam heating systems began.
In the XX century, heating systems appeared with forced circulation, which was carried out using pumps. This became possible thanks to the beginning of the industrial production of electric motors.
Today’s advanced technology allows us to keep our homes warm without creating any discomfort. Modern scientists successfully use the developments of their predecessors, every day improving the technologies for heating homes and workplaces of the population of the entire globe. Gas heating is currently the best type of heating because natural gas is the most efficient, economical, environmentally friendly and safe type of fuel.
In 1558, Giambattista della Porta described a method of chilling ice to temperatures far below its freezing point by mixing it with potassium nitrate (then called “nitre”) in his popular science book Natural Magic. In 1620, Cornelis Drebbel demonstrated “Turning Summer into Winter” for James I of England, chilling part of the Great Hall of Westminster Abbey with an apparatus of troughs and vats.
Drebbel’s contemporary Francis Bacon, like della Porta a believer in science communication, may not have been present at the demonstration, but in a book published later the same year, he described it as “experiment of artificial freezing” and said that “Nitre (or rather its spirit) is very cold, and hence nitre or salt when added to snow or ice intensifies the cold of the latter, the nitre by adding to its own cold, but the salt by supplying activity to the cold of the snow.